Linux Hard Disk/Drive - Reference
Hard Disk Layout
du -h --max-depth=1 - Total space taken by each directory
du -h --max-depth=1 /usr - Total space taken up individually by the sub directories and usr directory
swapon -s - The swap partition is a separate partition that moves items around from computer memory to hard drive,
mount - List all partitions on the hard disk and their mount points
Using Various Disk Management Tools
Parted - The parted command can also display and modify the partitions.
sudo parted /dev/sda u s p - To display the partition table
u - An abbreviation for Unit command.
s - Refers to the unit Sector, this can be interchanged with the following: B, KiB, MiB, GiB, TiB, kB, MB, GB, TB, %, cyl, chs, compact.
p - An abbreviation for Print command.
sudo parted -l
Fdisk - is a dialog-driven program for creation and manipulation of partition tables. It understands GPT, MBR, Sun, SGI and BSD partition tables. Block devices can be divided into one or more logical disks called partitions. This division is recorded in the partitiontable, usually found in sector 0 of the disk. (In the BSD world one talks about `disk slices' and a `disklabel'.)
List disk information
sudo fdisk -l /dev/sda
sudo fdisk /dev/sda
--- press m - to list available commands
--- press p - display existing partition tables
--- press d - delete partition
--- press n - create new partition
--- press w - write any changes made, such as deleting and creating a new table
Gdisk - GPT is the latest standard for defining the partitions on a hard disk. GPT uses globally unique identifiers (GUID) to define the partition, and you can create theoretically unlimited partitions on the hard disk. In this task, you will create and access a GPT table on the /dev/sdb device.
sudo gdisk /dev/sda1
swapon sudo mkswap /dev/sdb2
sudo mkfs -t ext3 /dev/sdb2
sudo lsblk -f
You can use view the /proc/partitions file to view the hard drive details. This file contains a table that mentions the major and minor number of partitioned devices. Type the following command:
Press Enter. Notice that there are major and minor columns. The major column defines the device type. For example, the number 2 denotes a floppy drive. The number 8 denotes sd device. The minor column defines the unique identification of an instance of this device type.
The cfdisk utility is a partition editor that can display and modify the partitions.
sudo fdisk sudo fdisk -l sudo sfdisk -l -uM
Similar to the partition and volume information, you can also view the mount points. Type the following command:
The df command can also display the information about the mounted filesystems. Type the following command:
The lsscsi utility is meant to list the SCSI devices on a system
The smartctl utility is meant to print the drive information. Type the following command:
sudo smartctl -i /dev/sda